Archive | August, 2012

Mercy Hospital 1968: A Prescription for Reinvestment on Chicago’s Near South Side

22 Aug

Mercy Hospital’s west facade. Photo by author

It was a fiery stroke of bad luck, and on Friday the 13th too, that really gave wings to the campaign to build a new Chicago Mercy Hospital.

New Mercy goes up, Old Mercy comes down – mid 1960s. Photo from Mercy Hospital

On Friday, September 13th, 1963, a blaze broke out on the top floor of the east wing of Chicago’s old Mercy Hospital at 26th and Prairie Avenue, about three miles south of the downtown Loop.  All patients and staff quickly evacuated and no one was hurt. Only days later the hospital was open again, albeit needing some serious cleaning and only offering limited services.  This time, though, there would be no renovation of the ninety-six year old hospital structure.  Fundraising efforts to rebuild the hospital were already underway and only two days after the east wing fire, hospital administrators announced in the Chicago Tribune their plans to demolish the old brick Mercy.

Old Mercy Hospital in 1910. Photo from Chicago Daily News Photos

Founded by Catholic Sisters of Mercy, this institution of healing received its charter from the State of Illinois in 1851 and the next year began administering medical care in a former boarding house in downtown Chicago.  In 1864, Mercy moved to a sprawling 20-acre site on Chicago’s South Side, remote enough a location to avoid the devastation wrought by the 1871 Chicago Fire.  From 1869 to 1917, Mercy expanded six times, growing to fill nearly an entire city block and becoming one of Chicago’s leading twentieth-century teaching hospitals and an important source of medical care to Chicago’s needy.

Plans to replace old Mercy with a new facility had already been in the works for a decade when fire broke out there in September 1963.  The hospital had earlier mulled over a move to the suburbs but resolved instead to remain and demolish its turn-of-the-century facility.  In old Mercy’s place, officials planned to construct a completely new facility, a modern medical center complex to be designed by the local firm of C.F. Murphy & Associates, well-known for their work at Chicago’s One Prudential Plaza (completed 1955) and for their long-anticipated Civic Center (now the Daley Center, completed 1965).

C.F. Murphy & Associates’ 1964 scale model of the new Mercy Hospital complex. Photo from the Chicago Daily Tribune

C.F. Murphy & Associates’ medical campus envisioned five low-rise structures – two identical six-story apartment buildings for nurses and interns, a five-story nursing home facility, and two four-story research facilities – all in the shadow of a concrete-frame twelve-story patient tower with enough room for 500 beds.  Finally released from the inefficient hodge-podge of Old Mercy’s nineteenth- and early twentieth-century buildings, the nurses and doctors of new Mercy would find a hospital designed with their needs in mind.  The new hospital would house a vertical conveyor system to aid in food, housekeeping, and medical supply distribution.  In the main medical building, outpatient care, operating suites, emergency rooms, and physical therapy spaces were kept on the main floor while patient rooms were lifted up into the tower, giving overnight patients peace and quiet, not to mention spectacular views of downtown to the north and Lake Michigan to the east.

A 1964 rendering of New Mercy Hospital. Photo from the Chicago Daily Tribune.

Staff and patients were not the only ones excited by the prospect of a new facility.  The new Mercy project, planned for the site of demolished neighborhood “blight,” was looked on favorably by city officials who saw not only a chance to improve local medical care but also the possibility to completely reinvent the physical and economic landscape of Chicago’s languishing Near South Side.  A new Mercy Hospital complex was intended to be only one of many neighborhood urban renewal projects and was hoped to become a focus of a reinvigorated inner city community.

Fundraising for C.F. Murphy’s new $24 million Mercy Hospital kicked off in earnest on November 9, 1963 at a glittering black-tie dinner held nearby at architect Alfred P. Shaw’s new McCormick Place Convention Center (completed in 1960, burned in 1967).  By 1965, enough money was raised to begin demolition of old Mercy and several surrounding neighborhood blocks and to begin the groundwork for the new complex.  In early 1968, after nearly three years of construction, patients were finally transferred from old Mercy into the new facility. Demolition of the old hospital was completed later that year.

Old Mercy (in the foreground), not long for this world, with its successor going up behind it. Photo from Chicago: City of Neighborhoods

Though new Mercy’s footprint has changed over its thirty-five year life, the centerpiece of the complex remains the twelve-story central patient treatment facility.

Mercy Hospital’s east facade. Photo by author

The tower’s two-story podium houses the hospital’s emergency services, accessed by a colonnaded entrance facing west, and the main visitor entrance pavilion facing east.  Perched above the visitor’s entrance on the second floor is the hospital’s original chapel (now closed for renovation), and cafeteria, its large windows looking east out onto an expansive parking lot, once the site of the Mercy’s Victorian era predecessor.

Mercy Hospital west emergency room entrance. Photo by author

In the tower above, Mercy’s patient bedrooms with their sweeping city views are set back within an exposed concrete frame. The colonnades of spindly white concrete columns hoist up the twelfth-floor penthouse which expands out beyond the footprint of the building like an abstracted and oversized classical cornice.

The underside of Mercy’s cantilevering twelfth floor. Photo by author

Inspiration for Mercy Hospital tower’s columns, modified groin/fan vaulting, and cantilevering twelfth-floor were most likely drawn from two notable American designs from the early 1960s:  architects Belt, Lemmon & Lo’s designs for the Hawaii State Capitol (designed in 1960 but not completed until 1969)…

Belt, Lemmon & Lo’s Hawaii State Capitol (completed 1969). Photo from Historic American Building Survey

… and Edward Durell Stone’s State Quad at SUNY Albany (1962).

Edward Durell Stone’s SUNY Albany campus (completed 1962). Photo from Wikipedia

Of Mercy’s planned outbuildings, only the 1964 intern resident apartment building survives.  This miniature-scale version of Mercy’s main tower gives us a glimpse at the scale of C.F. Murphy’s original complex design.

Mercy’s surviving intern residences (1964) just east of the main complex. Photo by author

Its twin to the north, an identical nurses’ apartment building, was slated to be built where the Stevenson Interstate-55 Expressway now runs just north of the complex (see the image of C.F. Murphy’s scale model above).  As the Stevenson was also in planning stages in the early 1960s, it is improbable that work on the nurses’ building ever broke ground.  The south intern apartment building, however, was completed as planned and sits intact on its original site just beyond the hospital’s east parking lot. This six-story structure, completed at the very beginning of construction on the rest of the complex, mimics its Mercy Hospital tower neighbor with its glass-enclosed flats suspended within a free-floating concrete exterior structure.

Expecting to build on the success of the nearby Michael Reese Hospital-Prairie Shores redevelopment district, the City of Chicago had ambitious plans for Mercy Hospital as a catalyst for rapid neighborhood growth.  The plans of civic planners did bear some fruit in the late 1960s.  Just south of Mercy, the South Commons redevelopment project, an ensemble of new high-rise and low-residential, education, and shopping facilities designed by Solomon-Cordwell and Gordon-Levin, was inaugurated shortly before the completion of the hospital complex.

A view of Mercy Hospital from the north with the South Commons development beyond. Photo by author

Despite its best intentions, the City of Chicago’s ambitious plan for Near South Side renewal came up short in returning the community to the level of vitality it hoped for.  Though Mercy was expected to spur a neighborhood building boom in the 1960s, the hospital’s twelve-story tower overlooks still-empty vacant lots cleared during Chicago’s urban renewal years.  Prairie Shores and South Commons remain attractive to residential buyers though the closure of Michael Reese Hospital in 2008 (and its subsequent 2010-2011 demolition) removed a major employer and life force from the neighborhood. With increasing focus on the return of South Loop as a vital commercial and residential neighborhood, it is yet to be seen how critical Mercy Hospital’s role will be in the Near South Side’s continuing revitalization.

Mercy Hospital’s east entrance pavilion. Photo by author

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It’s Morning in Douglas Park

15 Aug

While doing some preservation reconnaissance on Chicago’s West Side yesterday morning, I had a chance to check out William Le Baron Jenney’s Douglas Park, one of the sprawling nineteenth century public parks that ring the city, all linked together by the green boulevard system.

Set within the center of Douglas Park is the Prairie style-inspired Flower Hall, a reinforced concrete pavilion built around 1907.  The Flower Hall was designed in part by the influential Danish-American landscape architect Jens Jensen (1860-1951) as the focal point for his semi-formal garden that unfolds to the hall’s west.

Douglas Park’s Flower Hall today. Photo by author

Along with Chicago’s Garfield Park Conservatory, Douglas Park’s Flower Hall was one of only a few buildings Jensen had a hand in designing during his career and was his own thoughtful effort at fusing architecture and landscape into one unified composition.

Thanks to a restoration undertaken a decade ago, Douglas Park’s Flower Hall and its gardens still look as good as they did when Chicagoans got their first look at them 105 years ago.  Being there alone in the early morning (except for a few joggers), it’s still possible to imagine the park as it once was back in1907.

Jens Jensen’s Douglas Park Flower Hall in 1933. Image from the one and only Chuckman’s Chicago blog chuckmanchicagonostalgia.wordpress.com

Beating the Heat in America’s Early Office Buildings, Pt. 2

5 Aug

Part 1 of this series on early air conditioning can be found here.

America’s earliest skyscrapers in Chicago and New York were profitable for their builders but sometimes less than desirable spaces for those working in them.   Though the occupants of early skyscrapers marveled at how these buildings could rise to such  great heights, these same awe-struck workers grumbled through many a hot, stuffy day up in their offices in the sky.

Adler & Sullivan’s 1889 Auditorium Building in Chicago. The Auditorium Theatre was cooled with air fanned over ice. Photo credit Historic American Buildings Survey

Few early office buildings could claim to have integral mechanical ventilation systems because the technology simply did not yet exist to cool buildings on such a large scale.  Chicago’s 1889 Auditorium Building designed by Adler & Sullivan was one notable exception.  Though the office and hotel spaces remained unventilated, the great Auditorium Theatre at the west end of the building was cooled with air circulated over large blocks of ice.

Ice, however, was not the future.  To keep occupancies high and rents competitive, the thousands of warm-bodied office workers tall office buildings housed must somehow be cooled and ventilated in a consistent and efficient manner.  If the large office building was to be a success, a technology-driven way to maintain comfortable temperature and humidity levels indoors must be developed.  And quick, because if such an effective cooling system could be developed, the result would be no less momentous than the invention of the skyscraper’s own structural steel frame.

Willis Carrier in his later years, a proud papa with his first chiller design. Credit Treehugger (www.treehugger.com)

Enter Willis Carrier (1876-1950) from Buffalo, New York.  In 1902, twenty-six year old Carrier was an engineer for the Buffalo Forge Company, a casting operation that also developed heating coils and fans for industrial clients.  That year, the Sackett-Wilhelms Lithographing Company of Brooklyn, NY, asked the Buffalo Forge Company to solve a puzzling problem going on in their printing rooms:  the humidity of Brooklyn’s hot summers was causing their paper sizes to fluctuate from day to day and from print to print.  To maintain their printing quality (and to stay in business at all), Sackett-Wilhelms needed a way stabilize their paper sheet sizes by working around the temperature and weather conditions outside their printing rooms.  Young Willis Carrier was tapped by company brass to find a solution and the result was a 30-ton “air washer,”  an enormous mechanism that used fans to draw hot, humid air in, high-pressure cold water jets to cool and clean the air, and exit fans to push the fresh air out onto the printing room floor.

The Buffalo Forge Company, Buffalo, NY, in 1908, where Willis Carrier developed his first mechanical cooling system in 1902. Credit Buffalo Architecture and History (www.buffaloah.com)

Four years later on January 2, 1906, Carrier received the patent for his “Apparatus for Treating Air,” a more sophisticated incarnation of his air spraying system and a mechanism that eventually developed into the modern air conditioner.  Carrier’s initial “air washers” were crude, but his success as an air-washing expert would eventually drive him to leave Buffalo Forge in 1915 and start his own eponymous mechanical cooling operation.  Carrier’s later inventions elaborated on these earlier patents and won him the unofficial title of “father of modern air conditioning.”

Stuart Cramer (1868-1940), who popularized air conditioning in Southern U.S. cotton mills to keep cotton fibers cool and manageable in the spinning process. Credit Textile History (www.textilehistory.org)

Carrier may be known worldwide today, but it was actually textile mill engineer Stuart Cramer (1868-1940) who first coined the term “air-conditioning.”  The cotton mills Cramer developed at the turn-of-the-century in the Southern United States endured even more hellish conditions of heat and humidity. Cramer became an advocate for the mechanical cooling of these mills, though not in fact to make for a more pleasant work environment for those toiling inside of them.  Instead, Cramer was more concerned with the quality of raw cotton fibers which were much more easily spun into yarn when the air around them was kept cool.

Thanks to engineers and inventors like Willis Carrier, the technology now existed to artificially cool the enormous manufacturing halls pumping out American products and prosperity.  The early careers of Willis Carrier and Stuart Cramer showed more focus and more economic promise in the development of cooling mechanisms for America’s industrial spaces and less on keeping actual human workers comfortable.

Twelve year-old Selina Wall, a worker in the Brazos Valley Cotton Mill, West Texas, in 1913. Cotton mill workers like Selina benefited from Stuart Cramer’s efforts to keep cotton mills — and the cotton fibers processed within them — cool. Photo credit Library of Congress.

But what about the pencil-pushers supporting America’s growing corporate powers?  What about the executives and the assistants and the secretaries who greased the wheels of the nation’s commerce?  Sure, they weren’t the actual physical producers of the industrial products Americans were beginning to buy — they weren’t on the production floor dripping in sweat printing lithographs or spinning cotton yarn — but the roles of communication, accounting, and marketing they played were priceless when it came to getting goods to market and keeping American manufacturing afloat.

Couldn’t a value be put on the office worker’s need to keep cool and dry in hot weather?

Frank Lloyd Wright’s headquarters for the Larkin Company, Buffalo, NY c. 1906. Credit Buffalo Rising (archives.buffalorising.com)

Darwin Martin of the Larkin Company certainly thought so.  In 1906 with the help of his architect Frank Lloyd Wright, Martin would unveil his company’s new Buffalo, NY headquarters, a “Temple to Labor” designed to be as efficient in its use as an office building as in its mechanical air circulation and purification systems.  It was a structure not so very far from the Buffalo Forge Company where Willis Carrier was refining his own mechanical cooling inventions, and Martin would adopt many of his fellow Buffalonian’s ideas on how to keep indoor air clean and cool.   The Larkin Building would put Buffalo on the map with its innovative marriage of Wright’s design and Carrier-inspired environmental air quality system, and would inspire industrialists and architects all over the world to rethink how they should work how and build.

More to come.

Part 1 of this series on early air conditioning can be found here.